Yasuhiro Ito, Naoyoshi Onoda, Takahiro Okamoto
Vol 67 No. 7
The Japan Associations of Endocrine Surgeons has developed the revised version of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Thyroid Tumors. This article describes the guidelines translated into English for the 35 clinical questions relevant to the therapeutic management of thyroid cancers. The objective of the guidelines is to improve health-related outcomes in patients with thyroid tumors by enabling users to make their practice evidence-based and by minimizing any variations in clinical practice due to gaps in evidential knowledge among physicians. The guidelines give representative flow-charts on the management of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, along with recommendations for clinical questions by presenting evidence on the relevant outcomes including benefits, risks, and health conditions from patients' perspective. Therapeutic actions were recommended or not recommended either strongly (◎◎◎ or XXX) based on good evidence (😊)/good expert consensus (+++), or weakly (◎, ◎◎ or X, XX) based on poor evidence (😣)/poor expert consensus (+ or ++). Only 10 of the 51 recommendations given in the guidelines were supported by good evidence, whereas 35 were supported by good expert consensus. While implementing the current guidelines would be of help to achieve the objective, we need further clinical research to make our shared decision making to be more evidence-based.
Takamasa Ichijo, Hajime Ueshiba, Hajime Nawata, Toshihiko Yanase
Vol 67 No. 2
The aim of this study was to reveal clear epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of incidentally discovered adrenal masses, termed adrenal incidentalomas (AIs), and to establish appropriate managemental and therapeutic regimens in Japan. This study had been originally carried out as a project of a research proposed on behalf of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, from 1999 to 2004. This nationwide multicenter study on AIs included 3,672 cases with clinically diagnosed AIs, involving 1,874 males and 1,738 females, with mean age 58.1 ± 13.0 years (mean ± SD). In the present study, we focused on the investigation of the real prevalence of various adrenal disorders with AI. The mean nodule size of AI based on computed tomography was 3.0 ± 2.0 cm. Compared to non-functioning adenomas (NFAs), tumor diameters were significantly larger in adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), pheochromocytomas, cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), myelolipomas, metastatic tumors, cysts, and ganglioneuromas (p < 0.01). Endocrinological evaluations demonstrated that 50.8% of total AIs were non-functioning adenomas, while 10.5%, including 3.6% with subclinical Cushing's syndrome, were reported as CPAs, 8.5% as pheochromocytomas, and 5.1% as aldosterone-producing adenomas. ACCs were accounted for 1.4% (50 cases) among our series of AIs. In conclusion, while almost 50 % of AIs are non-functional adenomas, we must be particularly careful as AIs include pheochromocytomas or adrenal carcinomas, because they may be asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this is the first and the largest investigation of AI, thus providing basic information for the establishment of clinical guidelines for the management of AI.
Huiyao Cai, Zhengrong Jiang, Xinna Yang, Jiayu Lin, Qingyan Cai, Xisheng Li
Vol 67 No. 4
It has been shown that circular RNAs, a class of non-coding RNA molecules, play an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we sought to investigate the function of circular RNA HIPK3 (circHIPK3) in diabetes-associated metabolic disorders, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Results show that oleate stimulated circHIPK3 increase, and that circHIPK3 enhanced the stimulatory effect of oleate on adipose deposition, triglyceride (TG) content, and cellular glucose content in HepG2 cells. MiR-192-5p was the potential target of circHIPK3, since circHIPK3 significantly decreased miR-192-5p mRNA level, whereas anti-circHIPK3 significantly increased miR-192-5p mRNA level. Further study shows that transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was a downstream regulator of miR-192-5p, since miR-192-5p significantly decreased FOXO1 expression, whereas circHIPK3 significantly increased FOXO1 expression. Notably, the inhibitory effect of miR-192-5p was significantly reversed by circHIPK3. In vivo study shows that anti-miR-192-5p significantly increased blood glucose content, which was significantly inhibited by FOXO1 shRNA. MiR-192-5p significantly decreased adipose deposition and TG content in HepG2 cells, which was significantly reversed by the co-treatment with circHIPK3. Forskolin/dexamethasone (FSK/DEX) significantly increased cellular glucose, mRNA level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and this stimulatory effect of FSK/DEX was significantly inhibited by miR-192-5p. In the presence of circHIPK3, however, the inhibitory effect of miR-192-5p was totally lost. In summary, the present study demonstrated that circHIPK3 contributes to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by sponging miR-192-5p and up-regulating FOXO1.
Huiyan Wang, Guangtong She, Wenbai Zhou, Kezhuo Liu, Jun Miao, Bin Yu
Vol 66 No. 5
Forty-five pregnant women who underwent cesarean section, including 30 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 15 normal pregnant women, were enrolled in this study to examine the differential expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the placentas of women with GDM by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. The differentially expressed circRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment and circRNA-microRNA (miRNA) interaction prediction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the results. A total of 8,321 circRNAs were identified in the human placenta, among which 46 were differentially expressed (fold change ≥2 and p < 0.05), including three that were upregulated and 43 that were downregulated. According to the GO and KEGG enrichment results, these circRNAs may be associated with vital biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and signaling pathways. In particular, KEGG analysis shown they may be involved in advanced glycation end products-receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE) signaling pathway in diabetic complications, indicating that these circRNAs might participate in the occurrence and pathogenesis of GDM. qRT-PCR verified that the expression of circ_5824, circ_3636, and circ_0395 was consistent with RNA-seq analysis; their expression levels were significantly lower in the GDM group than in the control group. The circRNA-miRNA interaction was analyzed according to the molecular sponge mechanism, and its potential function is discussed. These results shed light on future functional studies of circRNAs related to GDM.
Jing Xue, Xiaorong Li, Ping Liu, Ke Li, Liping Sha, Xiaoli Yang, Lili Zhu, Zhen Wang, Youping Dong, Li Zhang, Hong Lei, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiaoying Dong, Hao Wang
Vol 66 No. 10
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents an endocrine disorder, which is closely related with gut microbiota. Inulin, a kind of probiotics, has been proven to alleviate gut microbiota dysbiosis. Metformin, a biguanide agent, shows beneficial effects on chronic metabolic diseases. Our objective was to assess the effects and associated mechanisms of inulin and metforin on attenuation of PCOS in mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups: control group (CON), model group (MOD), inulin group (INU), metformin group (MET). The last three groups were fed 6 mg of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) per 100 g body weight and 60% high-fat diet to generate mice model. After 21 days of intervention, mice were euthanized and associated indications were investigated. Body weight (BW) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased, but estradiol (E2) levels were increased in INU or MET group, respectively. Ovary HE staining demonstrated that inulin or metformin ameliorated PCOS morphology. Inflammatory indicators from plasma and ovary including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A were decreased in INU or MET group. Moreover, IL-10 in ovary of INU or MET group was increased. Sequencing and analysis of gut microbiota showed that compared to MOD group, Bifidobacterium was increased, but Proteobacteria, Helicobacter and Parasutterella were decreased in INU group. Helicobacter was decreased in MET group. Correlation analysis showed that gut microbiota was correlated with inflammatory factors. Our results revealed that inulin and metformin alleviated PCOS via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota, which may contribute to potential clinical therapy for the disease.
Kun Huang, Yeqing Xu, Shuangqin Yan, Tao Li, Yuanhong Xu, Peng Zhu, Fangbiao Tao
Vol 66 No. 3
This article aims to understand the isolated effect of maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in early pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Based on a birth cohort, pregnant women presented to maternity hospitals for the first antenatal care from Nov 2008 to Oct 2010 were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was asked to complete to collect data on socio-economic variables, previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, method of conception, previous endocrinic and metabolic diseases, and pregnancy-related anxiety in 1st trimester of the index pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy BMI was measured. Serum samples were collected, and TSH, FT4 and TPOAb were assayed. GDM was confirmed from medical records screened on 24–28 gestational weeks by using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The prevalence of isolated subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroidemia and positive TPOAb in early pregnancy was 2.0%, 2.0% and 12.8%. Prevalence of GDM in women with the isolated sub-clinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia and positive TPOAb was 2.9%, 2.8% and 3.1%, respectively, which were all higher than that detected in euthyroidism women (1.2%). Women with isolated positive TPOAb had significantly higher TSH and lower FT4 level compared with euthyroidism women. It was found that isolated positive TPOAb in early pregnancy increased the risk of GDM, adjusted RR and 95%CI being 2.541(1.037–6.226). No significant relationships were identified between isolated sub-clinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with GDM. In conclusion, isolated thyroid autoimmunity, represented by positive TPOAb, in early pregnancy were associated with GDM independent of TSH and FT4.