Easy and Rapid Induction of Vascular Cells by VISUAL
Yuki Kondo*, Atsuki Suguchi and Hiroo Fukuda
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7–3–1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–0033, Japan
Received August 30, 2017; accepted September 6, 2017
The vascular system is composed of xylem
and phloem tissues intervened by cambial cells, which undergo cell division
to supply vascular cells. Since vasculature is located deep inside the
plant body, it is quite difficult to monitor the differentiation process.
To overcome such difficulty, several xylogenic cultures have long been
used for analyzing xylem development. However, no efficient system for
phloem differentiation has been developed, which prevents the easy and
rapid investigation of phloem development. Recently, we established a new
tissue culture system for vascular cell differentiation named VISUAL (Kondo
et al. 2014, 2015, 2016). Here we examined phloem differentiation after VISUAL
induction with the use of the phloem-specific marker SEOR1pro: SEOR1-YFP
(Froelich et al. 2011).
Xylem (magenta) and phloem (green) differentiation appeared ectopically in cotyledons, indicating that VISUAL can generate a large number of phloem cells as well as xylem cells within only four days. Indeed, we revealed a co-expression network for early and late stages of phloem differentiation with the VISUAL system (Kondo et al. 2016). Therefore, VISUAL is a powerful tool for analyzing phloem development and will be useful for understanding the multipotency of cambial cells.
Froelich, D. R., Mullendore, D. L., Jensen, K. H., Ross-Elliott, T. J.,
Anstead, J. A., Thompson, G. A., Pélissier, H. C. and Knoblauch, M. 2011.
Phloem ultrastructure and pressure flow: Sieve-Element- Occlusion-Related
agglomerations do not affect translocation. Plant Cell 23: 4428–4445.
Kondo, Y., Fujita, T., Sugiyama, M. and Fukuda, H. 2015. A novel system for xylem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol. Plant 8: 612–621.
Kondo, Y., Ito, T., Nakagami, H., Hirakawa, Y., Saito, M., Tamaki, T.,
Shirasu, K. and Fukuda, H. 2014. Plant GSK3 proteins regulate xylem cell
differentiation downstream of TDIF-TDR signalling. Nat. Commun. 5: 3504.
Kondo, Y., Nurani, A. M., Saito, C., Ichihashi, Y., Saito, M., Yamazaki,
K., Mitsuda, N., Ohme-Takagi, M. and Fukuda, H. 2016. Vascular cell induction
culture system using Arabidopsis leaves (VISUAL) reveals the sequential differentiation of sieve element-like
cells. Plant Cell 28: 1250–1262.
*Corresponding author, e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org