Japanese Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery Vol44,No1

Efforts for Perioperative Care in Children with Congenital Heart Defects

Yuki Tanaka Takashi Miyamoto Shuichi Yoshitake
Takeshi Yoshii and Yuji Naito

(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Gunma Children’s Medical Center, Shibukawa, Japan)

Background:Perioperative care in congenital heart surgery has evolved in recent years, and it was considered a contributive factor to improve surgical outcome and prognosis. Objective:To extract perioperative clinical protocols that have been applied in our hospital, then assess their usefulness for better clinical outcome. Methods:We retrospectively reviewed our patients’ records to analyze representative perioperative protocols that might have contributed to surgical outcome, such as intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography(ITEE), extubation in the operating room on patients of atrial septal defect(ASD), ventricular septal defect(VSD), tetralogy of Fallot(TOF), Glenn procedure and Fontan procedure. We also assessed clinical pathway of ASD and VSD, and each protocol was individually explored to calculate achievement ratio in order to show its adequacy. Results:This study included 482 of on-pump surgery patients and 146 of off-pump surgery patients from June 2007 to June 2014. ITEE was performed in 474 of on-pump surgery patients and 102 of off-pump surgery patients. No case had a residual lesion immediately after operation. Extubation in the operating room was performed in cases without severe pulmonary hypertension(PH). The extubation ratio was 94.7%(ASD repair), 60.0%(VSD repair), 50.0%(TOF repair), 42.5%(Glenn procedure), and 45.2%(Fontan procedure), respectively. Clinical pathways of ASD and VSD included patients without severe PH. Achievement ratio of the clinical pathway was 98.2% in ASD and 94.2% in VSD patients, respectively. Four patients were excluded because of high c-reactive protein(CRP), and one patient because of familial circumstance. Conclusion:ITEE was useful in evaluation of cardiac function, residual issue and residual air at weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass. Reintubation did not occur in any clinical course of extubation in the operating room, but the extubation rate was not high because of safety concerns. Achievement ratio of the clinical pathways of both ASD and VSD was more than 90%, therefore, application of the clinical pathway was considered appropriate.


Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 44:1-7(2015)

Keywords:perioperative care;intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography;extubation in operating room;fast-track;clinical pathway

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