A Case of Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection with Occlusion of Prosthesis Implanted in the Abdominal Aorta

(Department of Cardiovascular surgery, Fukuyama Cardiovascular Hospital, Fukuyama, Japan)

Shogo Obata Shogo Mukai Hironobu Morimoto
Toshifumi Hiraoka Hiroaki Uchida Yoshitaka Yamane
A 54-year-old woman underwent abdominal aortic replacement for abdominal aortic aneurysm in March 2012. Approximately 6 months after surgery, she was taken by ambulance to hospital due to thoracodorsal pain, lower limb paralysis and pain. Emergency computed tomography indicated acute aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The outline of the prosthesis implanted in the abdominal aorta was absent, and emergency surgery was performed immediately by median sternotomy to treat suspected complete obstruction. Following confirmation of brachiocephalic artery dissection, extracorporeal circulation was started with drainage of blood from the vena cava and the return via left axillary artery, plus perfusion in both lower limbs. However, the level of regional oxygen saturation declined as the flow of extracorporeal circulation increased. To solve this problem, an incision was made in the ascending aorta, and an aortic cannula was inserted directly into the true lumen. Aortic arch replacement was then performed, but this central repair failed to improve blood flow in both the left and right femoral artery. Proximal thrombectomy successfully removed a large amount of thrombi, but did not improve blood circulation. Left axillobifemoral bypass was subsequently performed, and improved lower limb blood circulation, but with residual motor impairment. Since the patient regained somatosensory sensation and was able to perform simple exercises, rehabilitation was started. Hemodialysis was required after abnormal increases in muscle enzyme levels and white blood cell count, but this was later discontinued following improvement of renal function. The patient was transferred to a rehabilitation clinic 54 days after surgery.
  Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 42:344-348(2013)

Keywords:Stanford type A aortic dissection, lower limb malperfusion, Direct True Lumen Cannulation, abdominal aorta occulusion