Effect of Sivelestat Sodium Hydrate on Postoperative Respiratory Failure due to Acute Aortic Dissection

(Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Ome Municipal General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan and Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University*, Tokyo, Japan)

Kiyoshi Tamura* Nagahisa Oshima Toshizumi Shirai
Dai Tasaki
Acute respiratory failure after cardiopulmonary bypass is a severe postoperative complication. We evaluated the effects of a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, sivelestat sodium hydrate (Ono Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan), on postoperative respiratory failure due to acute aortic dissection (type A, AAD). A retrospective review of clinical records was conducted for all cases of emergency surgery for AAD at Ome Municipal General Hospital between June 2001 and August 2006. We identified 16 patients (median age, 64.9 years old; male: female ratio, 4:12) who had an initial postoperative PaO2/FIO2 of less than 300mmHg. Among these patients, 11 treated with sivelestat were compared with 5 (the control group) who did not receive sivelestat. There were no significant differences in age, body weight, sex, operating time, cardiopulmonary time, blood transfusion, initial WBC and CRP between the two groups. At arrival in the ICU, the patients in the sivelestat group had a worse respiratory condition based on parameters such as PaO2/FiO2 (sivelestat vs. control, 74.1 vs. 181.1mmHg, p0.0007), A-aDO2 (sivelestat vs. control, 620.3 vs. 556.7mmHg, p0.0003), and respiratory index (sivelestat vs. control, 9.29 vs. 4.92, p0.0002). However, the patients in the sivelestat group showed a greater improvement in these parameters and CRP over a 3-day observation period, compared to those in the control group. We conclude that sivelestat may attenuate postoperative respiratory complications in patients with AAD.
@Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 37: 91-95 (2008)