A Case of Hemolytic Anemia after Mitral Valve Repair

(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Japan and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital*, Kobe, Japan)

Kiyohito Yamamoto Takane Hiraiwa Hisato Ito
Yukikatsu Okada*
A 43-year-old man was admitted for mitral valve repair. After quadrangular resection of the posterior leaflet, folding plasty was performed. Chordal reconstruction of the anterior leaflet was carried out and a 32-mm Cosgrove-Edwards ring was placed. Seven weeks after the operation, hemolytic anemia developed and serum lactate dehydrogenase elevated to 1,923IU/l. Doppler echocardiography showed only mild residual mitral regurgitation, but the regurgitation jet collided with the annuloplasty ring. The velocity of the regurgitation jet was 5.19m/s. After bisoprolol administration, the hemolytic anemia improved. However, the patient had been complaining of general fatigue; serum lactate dehydrogenase was found to be re-elevated after discharge despite the administration of bisoprolol. Therefore, re-operation was undertaken. The cause of the residual mitral regurgitation was mainly anterior leaflet prolapse. Chordal reconstruction and ring annuloplasty were re-performed. The hemolytic anemia was cured after re-operation. This case showed that a high-velocity regurgitation jet can cause hemolytic anemia, especially by colliding with an annuloplasty ring. It is important to accurately evaluate the severity, direction and velocity of the regurgitation jet by transesophageal echocardiography. It seems that the velocity of the regurgitation jet could become a parameter when deciding on the treatment plan.
@Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 37: 151-154 (2008)