Blood Conservation in Open-Heart Surgery: Avoiding Predonated Autologous Blood

(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Yamanashi Central Hospital, Yamanashi, Japan)

Hiroshi Osawa Kouji Tsuchiya Hiroyuki Saito
Hiroshi Furukawa Youhei Kabuto Yoshinao Iida
Background: Operative blood loss during open-heart surgery has been decreasing recently. We have stopped predonated autologous blood transfusions to reduce hospital stay and cost. Material and methods: In 70 consecutive elective open-heart cases, we used intraoperative hemodilutional autologous transfusions and intraoperative autotransfusions to avoid homologous blood transfusion. Predonated autologous blood transfusion was not used. All patients received an infusion of high-dose tranexamic acid prior to and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Results: Homologous blood transfusion was not required in 77.1% of patients who underwent open-heart surgery. When further classified, 84.5% of patients who underwent primary open-heart surgery, 41.7% of patients who underwent a reoperation, and 33.3% of patients who were preoperatively anemic did not require homologous blood transfusion. In patients who undergo reoperation and who are preoperatively anemic, the rate of homologous blood transfusion is high. Therefore, during the reoperation, intraoperative autologous blood transfusion should be used before starting CPB, and iron should be given to anemic patients prior to reoperation. Conclusion: Our strategy of blood conservation consists of intraoperative hemodilutional autologous transfusion, intraoperative autotransfusion, infusion of high-dose tranexamic acid prior to and after CPB and, avoiding predonated autologous blood transfusion. Based on our experience, predonated autologous blood transfusion is usually unnecessary for cases who undergo surgery for the first time and are not anemic. Predonated autologous blood transfusion should be reserved only for high risk patients with anemia and reoperation cases. For further blood conservation, we need to study the safety limits of non-transfusion in open-heart surgery.
@Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 29: 63-67 (2000)