ENDOCRINE JOURNAL (hereinafter referred to as EJ) is an English-language journal issued monthly by the Japan Endocrine Society. This journal is a continuation (from 1993) of ENDOCRINOLOGIA JAPONICA, which was first published in1954. It is the policy of EJ to publish papers that make a contribution either experimentally, theoretically or clinically to knowledge in the field of endocrinology and metabolism, and to the development of endocrinology. Only unpublished original materials, including original studies, notes, reviews and rapid communications describing new observations and techniques will be accepted for publication. Papers in English are accepted from any country and should be written in proper English.