Yaping Liang, Xiaojia Xu, Mingjuan Yin, Yan Zhang, Lingfeng Huang, Ruoling Chen, Jindong Ni
Vol 66 No. 1
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of Berberine on glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify potential factors may modifying the hypoglycemic effect. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database to identify randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of Berberine. We calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Twenty-eight studies were identified for analysis, with a total of 2,313 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The pool data showed that Berberine treatment was associated with a better reduction on FPG (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.77 to –0.30), PPG (WMD = –0.94 mmol/L, 95% CI: –1.27 to –0.61), and HbA1c (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.93 to –0.15) than control groups. Subgroup-analyses indicated that effects of Berberine on blood glucose became unremarkable as the treatment lasted more than 90 days, the daily dosage more than 2 g/d and patients aged more than 60 years. The efficiency of Berberine combined with hypoglycaemics is better than either Berberine or hypoglycaemic alone. The dosage and treatment duration of Berberine and patients’ age may modify the effect.
Hiroshi Arima, Shintaro Iwama, Hidefumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Noriko Makita, Michio Otsuki, Kazunori Kageyama, Akihisa Imagawa, Takashi Akamizu
Vol 66 No. 7
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising treatment for advanced malignancies. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in several organs, including skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, muscle, nerve, and endocrine organs. Endocrine irAEs comprise hypopituitarism, primary adrenal insufficiency, thyroid dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These conditions have the potential to lead to life-threatening consequences, such as adrenal crisis, thyroid storm, severe hypocalcemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. It is therefore important that both endocrinologists and oncologists understand the clinical features of each endocrine irAE to manage them appropriately. This opinion paper provides the guidelines of the Japan Endocrine Society and in part the Japan Diabetes Society for the management of endocrine irAEs induced by ICIs.
Huiyan Wang, Guangtong She, Wenbai Zhou, Kezhuo Liu, Jun Miao, Bin Yu
Vol 66 No. 5
Forty-five pregnant women who underwent cesarean section, including 30 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 15 normal pregnant women, were enrolled in this study to examine the differential expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the placentas of women with GDM by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. The differentially expressed circRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment and circRNA-microRNA (miRNA) interaction prediction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the results. A total of 8,321 circRNAs were identified in the human placenta, among which 46 were differentially expressed (fold change ≥2 and p < 0.05), including three that were upregulated and 43 that were downregulated. According to the GO and KEGG enrichment results, these circRNAs may be associated with vital biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and signaling pathways. In particular, KEGG analysis shown they may be involved in advanced glycation end products-receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE) signaling pathway in diabetic complications, indicating that these circRNAs might participate in the occurrence and pathogenesis of GDM. qRT-PCR verified that the expression of circ_5824, circ_3636, and circ_0395 was consistent with RNA-seq analysis; their expression levels were significantly lower in the GDM group than in the control group. The circRNA-miRNA interaction was analyzed according to the molecular sponge mechanism, and its potential function is discussed. These results shed light on future functional studies of circRNAs related to GDM.
Toshihiko Yanase, Ikumi Yanagita, Kazuo Muta, Hajime Nawata
Vol 65 No. 1
Frailty is a state of vulnerability and a consequence of cumulative decline in multiple physiological systems over a lifespan. The occurrence of frailty depends on deterioration in muscle and nerve function, declining cardiopulmonary reserve and loss of executive function. Diabetes mellitus (DM) often causes functional impairment in each of the above systems, thus leading to a loss of whole body homeostasis and deterioration in physical function. Inability of self-management in DM patients may also have considerable impact on the development of sarcopenia/frailty. Thus, there may be positive feedback between the progression of diabetic complications and frailty/sarcopenia. While various factors are involved in this process, insulin resistance or insulin depletion may be an important factor in the progression of frailty in diabetes patients since insulin is well known to be an anabolic hormone in muscle. Interestingly, in our study targeting elderly DM patients, low HbA1c was a significant and independent risk factor for frailty, as assessed using a broad sense frailty scale, the Clinical Frailty Scale (CSF), suggesting that reverse metabolism due to malnutrition in elderly type 2 DM patients might be involved. Therefore, an intervention that includes proper nutrition and exercise training may be essential for the prevention of frailty. The pathogenesis of frailty in DM patients is extensively discussed in this review.
Ryosuke Sakai, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Emi Ushigome, Akane Miki, Takuro Okamura, Masako Matsugasumi, Takuya Fukuda, Saori Majima, Shinobu Matsumoto, Takafumi Senmaru, Masahide Hamaguchi, Muhei Tanaka, Mai Asano, Masahiro Yamazaki, Yohei Oda, Michiaki Fukui
Vol 65 No. 4
Skipping breakfast or irregular breakfast is associated with poor glycemic control. However, a relationship between the timing of dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes remains indefinite. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between late-night-dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. We performed questionnaire survey for lifestyle factors in this cross-sectional study. We defined having dinner later than eight pm as late-night-dinner. We examined the differences in clinical and metabolic parameters between those who have late-night-dinner and those who do not have. We also examined the relationship between late-night-dinner and HbA1c, using multiple regression analysis. Ninety-five people (23.2%) had a late-night-dinner, among 409 people with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic parameters (mean (SD) or median (interquartile range)) of people with late-night-dinner were worse than those of without, including body mass index (BMI) (24.4 (4.0) vs. 23.2 (3.4) kg/m2, p = 0.006), triglycerides (1.5 (1.1–2.1) vs. 1.2 (0.8–1.7) mmol/L, p < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (1.4 (0.4) vs. 1.6 (0.4) mmol/L, p = 0.004) and hemoglobin A1c (58.1 (13.3) vs. 55.2 (10.2) mmol/mol, (7.5 (1.2) vs. 7.2 (0.9) %), p = 0.023)). Late-night-dinner (standardized regression coefficient = 0.13, p = 0.028) was associated with hemoglobin A1c after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, exercise, alcohol, snacking after dinner, nighttime sleep duration, time from dinner to bedtime, skipping breakfast, and medication for diabetes. Late-night-dinner is independently associated with poor glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.