Tsugumichi Saito, Shuichi Okada, Eijiro Yamada, Yoko Shimoda, Aya Osaki, Yuko Tagaya, Ryo Shibusawa, Junichi Okada, Masanobu Yamada
Vol 62. No. 12
Dapagliflozin is a SGLT2 (Sodium/Glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitor that reduces circulating glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients by blocking the SGLT2-dependent reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. Dapagliflozin is metabolized by UGT1A9 (UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, Polypeptidase A9), suppressing its SGLT2 inhibitor activity. However little information is available on whether dapagliflozin acts in the absence of dapagliflozin metabolism. Treatment with 0.5μM dapagliflozin significantly reduced the number of HCT116 cells, which express SGLT2 but not UGT1A9. This was independent of SGLT2 inhibition, as the SGLT2 inhibitor phlorizin had no effect. Dapagliflozin also enhanced Erk phosphorylation but without changing levels of uncleaved and cleaved PPAR and uncleaved caspase-3, suggesting that the cause of the decrease in HCT116 cell number was apoptosis independent cell death. Taken together, these data indicate a new potential role for dapagliflozin as an anticancer reagent in tumor cell populations that do not express UGT1A9.
Tomomi Nakamura, Taku Tsuburai, Aya Tokinaga, Izumi Nakajima, Reiko Kitayama, Yuichi Imai, Tomoko Nagata, Hiroshi Yoshida, Fumiki Hirahara, Hideya Sakakibara
Vol 62. No. 11
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is necessary for uterine development and bone mass acquisition in women with Turner syndrome (TS) suffering from ovarian insufficiency. However, adequate ERT regimens have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ERT for both uterine development and bone mass acquisition. One hundred TS patients from Yokohama City University Hospital (88 with primary amenorrhea (PA) and 12 patients with spontaneous menstrual cycles (MC)) were enrolled after obtaining consent. Clinical profiles, uterine length (UL) measured by ultrasonic examination, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-4) assessed by DEXA were evaluated. At the time of the first visit, the ULs of patients in the PA group were significantly shorter than those in the MC group. After receiving ERT, there were no significant differences in UL between patients with PA and MC. Forty-seven patients for whom the ERT initiation age was known were investigated to clarify the influence on BMD. The results showed that the BMD in the late initiation (18 years or older) group at the latest visit (0.770 ± 0.107 g/cm2: n = 16) was significantly lower than that in the early initiation (under 18 years) group (0.858 ± 0.119 g/cm2: n = 21) or the MC group (0.941 ± 0.118 g/cm2: n = 10). No significant differences were seen between the early initiation and MC group. ERT was effective in increasing UL and BMD. However, early initiation of ERT is necessary to increase BMD.
Jin-Fang Ge, Ya-Yun Xu, Ning Li, Yue Zhang, Guo-Liang Qiu, Cheng-Hao Chu, Cai-Yun Wang, Gan Qin, Fei-Hu Chen
Vol 62 No. 10
The major purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the spatial learning and memory ability in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) rat model and the potential mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization and the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was detected. The spatial learning and memory ability was tested using Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze. The protein expressions of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured via western blot. The results showed that SCH rat model was successfully duplicated. The SCH rats showed impaired learning and memory in the behavioral tests. However, these changes were reversed by the treatment of RES (15mg/kg) and levothyroxine (LT4). Moreover, RES treated rats exhibited reduced plasma TSH level and hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression, which suggested that the imbalance of HPT axis in the SCH rats could be reversed by RES treatment. Furthermore, RES treatment up-regulated the protein levels of syt-1 and BDNF in hippocampus. These findings indicated an amelioration effect of RES on the spatial learning and memory in the SCH rats, the mechanism of which might be involved with its ability of modifying the hyperactive HPT axis and up-regulating the hippocampal hypo-expression of syt-1 and BDNF.
Birgit Harbeck, Swantje Brede, Claudia Witt, Sven Süfke, Hendrik Lehnert, Christian Haas
Vol 62 No. 5
Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare disease caused by destruction of the adrenal glands or dysfunction of the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus. Treatment usually requires lifelong replacement therapy with glucocorticoids. Correct use of glucocorticoids and early dose adjustments are essential to cover the increased glucocorticoid demand in stress. Repeated education of patients and their partners is the best strategy to avoid life-threatening emergencies. However, there is a debate whether physicians’ knowledge regarding AI is sufficient, in part due to the rareness of this endocrine disorder. To determine the present specific knowledge of physicians in a large University Department of Internal Medicine with a clinically and scientifically active Division of Endocrinology, all interns, residents / fellows, specialists or senior physicians / consultants were asked to complete a questionnaire with various possible answers on the subject of AI (n=69, median age 30 years, range 23-49 years). The present data suggest that in the investigated University Hospital setting current physicians’ knowledge of medical replacement strategies in AI may be insufficient depending on the level of education and experience. Even physicians with training in endocrinology in part demonstrated extensive knowledge gaps. There might be a need for additional structured information and training on AI, even in specialized hospitals.
Ohk-Hyun Ryu, Sungwha Lee, Jaemyung Yu, Moon-Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Franco Mantero
Vol 61 No. 2
Epidemiologic studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is little evidence that vitamin D supplementation improves glucose intolerance. We evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of vitamin D in Korean T2DM subjects. We enrolled 158 T2DM patients who had stable glycemic control [hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.5%] and vitamin D levels less than 20 ng/mL. The participants were randomized into two groups: Placebo (100 mg daily of elemental calcium administered twice a day) or Vitamin D (1000 IU daily of cholecalciferol combined with 100 mg of elemental calcium administered twice a day). We compared outdoor physical activity, glycemic control, homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), during the 24-week intervention. We analyzed the data of 129 participants (placebo =65, vitamin D =64) who completely followed the protocol. Outdoor physical activity and oral anti-diabetic drugs did not differ between the groups. While there were significant differences in the vitamin D levels (15.6 ± 7.1 ng/mL vs 30.2 ± 10.8 ng/mL, P<0.001) and change in PTH levels (1.4 ± 15.3 pg/mL vs -5.5 ± 9.8 pg/mL, P=0.003) between the placebo and vitamin D groups, there were no differences in HbA1c (7.27 ± 0.87% vs 7.40 ± 0.90%) (P=0.415) and HOMA-IR. Serum calcium and kidney function results showed that the vitamin D supplementation was safe. While vitamin D supplementation is safe and effective in the attainment of vitamin D sufficiency, it had no effect on long-term glycemic control for T2DM in our study.
Kennichi Kakudo, Kaori Kameyama, Akira Miyauchi, Hirotoshi Nakamura
Vol 61 No. 6
The Japan Thyroid Association (JTA) recently published new guidelines for clinical management of thyroid nodules. This paper introduces their diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. There are two points where the new reporting system that differs from existing internationally-accepted ones. The first is the subclassification of the so-called indeterminate category, which is divided into ‘follicular neoplasm’ and ‘others’. The second is the subclassification of follicular neoplasm into ‘favor benign’, ‘borderline’ and ‘favor malignant’. It is characterized by self-explanatory terminologies as to histological type and probability of malignancy to establish further risk stratification as well as to facilitate communication between clinicians and cytopathologists. The different treatment strategies adopted for thyroid nodules is deeply influenced by the particular diagnostic system used for thyroid cytology. In Western countries all patients with follicular neoplasms are advised to have immediate diagnostic surgery while patients in Japan often undergo further risk stratification without immediate surgery. The JTA diagnostic system of reporting thyroid cytology is designed for further risk stratification of patients with indeterminate cytology. If a surgeon applies diagnostic lobectomy to all patients with follicular neoplasm unselectively, this subclassification of follicular neoplasm has no practical meaning and is unnecessary. Cytological risk stratification of follicular neoplasms is optional and cytopathologists can choose either a simple 6-tier system without stratification of follicular neoplasm or a complicated 8-tier system depending on their experience in thyroid cytology and clinical management.
Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Salvatore Saitta, Mariateresa Cristani, Salvatore Giovinazzo, Valeria Tigano, Francesco Trimarchi, Salvatore Benvenga, Sebastiano Gangemi
Vol 61 No. 4
Recent studies have demonstrated that T-helper 17 lymphocytes (Th17), which produce mostly IL-17, play a major role in several autoimmune diseases commonly thought to be Th1-related, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). IL-23, a member of the IL-12 cytokine family, is known to guide T cells toward the Th17 phenotype and its serum levels are increased in several autoimmune disease. Few data are available in the literature on IL-23 in HT. Using IL-23 Quantikine ELISA Kit (lower limit of detection 2.7 pg/mL) we analyzed the serum levels of IL-23 in 81 HT patients (75 females and 6 males, aged 14-70; mean age 39±17 years), and an age- and sex-matched group of 80 healthy persons. Both patients and controls did not receive any treatment. The positive detection rates of serum IL-23 were significantly higher in patients with HT: 56% of HT patients had detectable IL-23 in serum compared to 36% of healthy subjects (Chi χ2 test, p=0.014). Moreover, HT patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-23 (157.38 ± 17.92 pg/mL) in comparison with healthy controls (21.46 ± 5.4 pg/mL; p <0.0001). No significant correlation was found between serum levels of IL-23 and Tg-Ab or TPO-Ab levels, as well as with TSH values, in HT patients. In conclusion, serum IL-23 is increased in euthyroid and untreated HT patients, as compared to healthy subjects. Our data suggest that IL-23 would play a role in the pathogenesis of HT.
Akira Umemura, Akira Sasaki, Hiroyuki Nitta, Koki Otsuka, Takayuki Suto, Go Wakabayashi
Vol 61 No. 4
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contribution of serum adipokines and adipokines from the patient’s omentum-derived adipocytes (PODAs) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of Japanese patients with severe obesity. Secondarily, we analyzed patients’ metabolic changes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Twenty-three LSG patients and 23 non-obese patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were enrolled. The levels of adipokines in the serum and the PODAs were measured. The clinical and metabolic data were evaluated at 6 months after LSG. The mean serum leptin levels and the mean serum plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly greater (p < 0.001) and the mean adiponectin levels were significantly lower in the LSG group (p = 0.006). In the measurements of the PODAs, the mean leptin levels (p < 0.001) were significantly greater and the mean adiponectin levels (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the LSG group. The mean BMI (-12 kg/m², p < 0.001) and mean VAT (-135.5 cm², p = 0.001) were significantly decreased after LSG. In nine patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the reduction in VAT correlated with the change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.006) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (p = 0.001). After 6 months, LSG markedly improved most obesity-related comorbidities. Our results suggest that LSG may contribute to VAT reduction, improved adipocyte hormone levels, and changes in gut physiology and endocrinology.
Umit Aydogan, Aydogan Aydogdu, Halil Akbulut, Alper Sonmez, Servet Yuksel, Yalcin Basaran, Ozcan Uzun, Erol Bolu, Kenan Saglam
Vol. 59 (2012) No. 12
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as the failure in production of gonadal hormones, thus resulting in lower amounts of testosterone. Depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life are the most common psychopathological conditions in young hypogonadal men. The aim of the present study was to assess the still debated relationship with testosterone levels and psychological symptoms in young male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Thirty-nine young male patients with CHH and 40 age-matched healthy males were enrolled in the present study. The impact of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) on the patients’ anxiety and depression levels, sexual function and quality of life were assessed before and after 6 months of treatment using valid and reliable scales, including the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX). Patients with CHH had significantly higher scores for BDI, BAI, and ASEX than the control subjects at baseline (p=0.011, p=0.036, p<0.001, respectively). The ASEX and BDI scores significantly improved after the TRT (p<0.001 for both), while the improvement in the BAI score was not statistically significant (p=0.135). When compared to the control group, treatment naïve hypogonadal patients had more severe symptoms of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and worse quality of life. After 6 months of TRT, we observed improvements in the above parameters, suggesting that low endogenous levels of testosterone might be related to the increased incidence of psychological symptoms.
Tetsurou Satoh, Osamu Isozaki, Atsushi Suzuki, Shu Wakino, Tadao Iburi, Kumiko Tsuboi, Naotetsu Kanamoto, Hajime Otani, Yasushi Furukawa, Satoshi Teramukai, Takashi Akamizu
Vol. 63 (2016) No. 12
Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.
Yuko Nakagawa, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Masahiro Nagasawa, Hiroshi Shibata, Itaru Kojima
Vol. 61 (2014) No. 2
A homodimer of taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) functions as a sweet taste-sensing receptor in pancreatic β-cells. This receptor is activated by various sweet molecules including sugars such as glucose. To determine the role of this receptor in glucose-induced insulin secretion, we addressed whether or not this receptor modulates glucose metabolism in MIN6 cells. We measured changes in intracellular ATP ([ATP]i) in MIN6 cells expressing luciferase. Sucralose, an agonist of T1R3, induced immediate and sustained elevation of [ATP]i in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. The effect of sucralose was dose-dependent and, at 5 mM, was greater than that induced by 25 mM glucose. In contrast, carbachol, GLP-1 or high concentration of potassium did not reproduce the sucralose action. Sucralose facilitated the increase in [ATP]i induced by a mitochondrial fuel methylsuccinate, and potentiated glucose-induced elevation of [ATP]i. Administration of a non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 3-O-methylglucose, which acts as an agonist of T1R3, induced a small and transient increase in [ATP]i. 3-O-Methylglucose augmented elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, and also enhanced glucose-induced increase in [ATP]i. Knock down of T1R3 by using shRNA attenuated [ATP]i-response to high concentration of glucose and also reduced the glucose-induced insulin secretion. These results indicate that activation of the homodimer of T1R3 facilitates the metabolic pathway in mitochondria and augments ATP production. The results obtained by using 3-O-methylglucose suggest that glucose, by acting on the homodimer of T1R3, promotes its own metabolism.