Yasuhiro Ito, Shinichi Suzuki, Ken-ichi Ito, Tsuneo Imai, Takahiro Okamoto, Hiroya Kitano, Iwao Sugitani, Kiminori Sugino, Hidemitsu Tsutsui, Hisato Hara, Akira Yoshida, Kazuo Shimizu
Vol 63 No. 7
Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is generally indolent in nature and, even though it metastasizes to distant organs, the prognosis is normally excellent. In contrast, the overall survival (OS) of patients with radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory and progressive metastases is dire, because no effective therapies have been available to control the metastatic lesions. However, recently, administration of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has become a new line of therapy for RAI-refractory and progressive metastases. Previous studies have reported significant improvement regarding the progression-free survival rates of patients with metastatic lesions. However, TKIs cause various severe adverse events (AEs) that damage patients’ quality of life and can even be life-threatening. Additionally, metastatic lesions may progress significantly after stopping TKI therapy. Therefore, it is difficult to determine who is a candidate for TKI therapy, as well as how and when physicians start and stop the therapy. The present review, created by Committee of pharmacological therapy for thyroid cancer of the Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgery (JSTS) and the Japan Association of Endocrine Surgeons (JAES) describes how to appropriately use TKIs by describing what we do and do not know about treatment using TKIs.
Chih-Chun Chang, Keng-Yang Lin, Kang-Yu Peng, Yuan-Ji Day, Li-Man Hung
Vol 63 No. 2
Studies on resveratrol in a wide range of concentrations on obese mice and adipose cells are necessary to comprehend its range of diverse and contradictory effects. In this study, we examined the anti-obesity effects of resveratrol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice at dosages ranging from 1 to 30 mg/kg treatment for 10 wk. We also evaluated the effects of resveratrol on cytotoxicity, proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 cells at concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 100 μM. In HFD obese mice, resveratrol treatment for 10 wk without decreased calories intake significantly attenuated HFD-induced weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol treatment also protected against HFD-induced lipid deposition in adipose tissues and liver. In cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, high dosage (10 to 100 μM) resveratrol treatment produced cytotoxicity in both preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. In contrast, low concentration resveratrol treatment (1 to 10 μM) significantly inhibited the capacity of 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into mature adipocytes. Low dose resveratrol treatment also downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and perilipin protein expressions in differentiated adipocytes. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced lipolysis was inhibited by low concentration resveratrol treatment in mature adipocytes. At concentrations of 10-100 μM, resveratrol exerted cytotoxicity. In contrast, at concentrations of 1-10 μM resveratrol inhibited adipogenic differentiation in preadipocytes and suppressed lipolysis in mature adipocytes. Our results suggest that resveratrol possessed anti-obesity effects by induction of cytotoxicity at high dosage and that it influences preadipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte lipolysis at low concentration.
Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Takafumi Osaka, Takuya Fukuda, Muhei Tanaka, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui
Vol 63 No. 10
Recent cross-sectional studies revealed that sarcopenia is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general population. However, it remains to be elucidated that the association between skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and hepatic steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study of 145 Japanese patients (79 men and 66 women) with type 2 diabetes, we examined the correlation of SMI with hepatic steatosis. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimpedance analysis measurements and SMI (%) was defined as skeletal muscle mass (kg)/total body weight (kg) × 100. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) evaluated with transient elastography, was used for assessment of hepatic steatosis. In addition, we also investigated the association between SMI and prevalence of NAFLD, which was defined as CAP over 237.8 dm-1, using logistic regression analysis. Fifty-eight (74%) men and thirty-nine (60%) women had NAFLD. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that SMI was independently correlated with CAP (β = -0.35, P = 0.007) in men after adjusting for age, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides/ HDL-C ratio, C-reactive protein and gamma-glutamyl transferase. On the other hand, SMI was not associated with CAP in women. Odds ratio per incremental 1% of SMI for prevalence of NAFLD was 0.80 (95% CI 0.64-0.97, P = 0.021) after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking statues, triglycerides/ HDL-C ratio, HbA1c, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in men. In conclusion, SMI was negatively associated with hepatic steatosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
Su Wang, Qichao Yang, Shuqin Yu, Ruirong Pan, Dan Jiang, Yuanxin Liu, Hao Hu, Wenjun Sun, Xiafei Hong, Haoying Xue, Weiyun Qian, Dong Wang, Libin Zhou, Chaoming Mao, Guoyue Yuan
Vol 63 No. 4
Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been recently characterized as a potent insulin sensitizer that regulates adipose tissue remodeling, but the physiological role of FGF1 remains unclear. This study measured serum FGF1 levels for the first time in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and further explored the correlations between FGF1 levels and various metabolic parameters in T2DM. Serum FGF1 levels were determined using ELISA in age-, sex- and BMI- matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=80) and newly diagnosed T2DM (n=80). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), blood lipids, and insulin secretion were also measured. Insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-β), respectively. Serum FGF1 levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in normal glucose tolerance subjects (74.52 [55.91∼101.34] vs. 60.31 [48.99∼83.91] pg/mL; P<0.05). In addition, serum FGF1 level positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-OGTT glucose (2h PG), and HbA1C (all P values <0.05) in T2DM subjects. Multivariate regression analyses showed that BMI and HbA1C were the independent factors influencing serum FGF1 levels. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that serum FGF1 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (P<0.01). Circulating concentrations of FGF1 are significantly increased in T2DM patients. Our results suggest that FGF1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM.
Tatsuhiko Urakami, Remi Kuwabara, Masako Aoki, Misako Okuno, Junichi Suzuki
Vol 63 No. 2
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of switching to insulin degludec (IDeg) from insulin glargine (IGlar) as basal-bolus therapy in young people with type 1 diabetes. The subjects were 36 patients, 21.3±1.0 years of age, with type 1 diabetes. IGlar had previously been injected once daily in 25 patients and twice daily in 11. They were then switched from IGlar to once-daily injection of IDeg. Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels decreased significantly from 134±3.9 mg/dL and 7.9±0.2% at baseline to 116±2.2 mg/dL and 7.4±0.2% at 12 months after starting IDeg (P<0.0001 and P≤0.001, respectively). Overall and nocturnal hypoglycemia (PG<70 mg/dL) frequencies also decreased significantly from 4.9±0.7 and 2.0±0.3 times/month to 2.4±0.3 and 0.4±0.1 times/month at 12 months after starting IDeg (P≤0.005 and P<0.0005, respectively). The daily basal insulin dose was significantly reduced from 0.48±0.04 units/kg/day at baseline to 0.38±0.03 units/kg/day at the end of the study period (P<0.0001), which corresponded to 79.2% of the baseline value. Trends were similar in patients receiving the once-daily injection and those given twice-daily injections, but basal-insulin value reductions from baseline were more marked in patients receiving twice-daily injections of basal insulin (76.0% vs. 82.6% of the baseline value). These results suggest that switching from IGlar to an appropriate dose of IDeg may effectively control hyperglycemia while reducing the frequency of hypoglycemia episodes in young Japanese people with type 1 diabetes.
Itsuro Endo, Seiji Fukumoto, Keiichi Ozono, Noriyuki Namba, Daisuke Inoue, Ryo Okazaki, Mika Yamauchi, Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Masanori Minagawa, Toshimi Michigami, Masaki Nagai, Toshio Matsumoto
Vol 62 No. 9
A nationwide epidemiologic survey of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-related hypophosphatemic diseases was conducted in 2010 to clarify the prevalence and the clinical presentations of the disorders. A questionnaire inquiring the experience of patients with these diseases was sent to randomly selected hospitals throughout Japan. The estimated annual incidence of the diseases was 117 cases (95% CI 75 - 160), 55 males (95% CI 30 - 81) and 62 females (95% CI 40 - 84). Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) were the most prevalent causes of acquired and genetic FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases, respectively. The estimated incidence of XLH was about 1 in 20,000. We have also collected clinical data of the patients by a secondary survey. These patients showed FGF23 levels of above 30 pg/mL by intact assay in the presence of hypophosphatemia. While complete resection of responsible tumors improved biochemical abnormalities in patients with TIO, treatment with phosphate and/or active vitamin D3 did not normalize serum phosphate and tubular maximum transport of phosphate in patients with XLH. Our results suggest that there is no racial difference in the incidence of XLH. While FGF23 measurement is useful for the diagnosis of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases, the better management is necessary especially for patients with genetic hypophosphatemic rickets caused by excessive actions of FGF23.
Tomohiko Urano, Satoshi Inoue
Vol 62. No. 6
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased susceptibility to fractures. Evidence from genetic studies indicates that BMD, a complex quantitative trait with a normal distribution, is genetically controlled. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as well as studies using candidate gene approaches have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with BMD, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. These SNPs have been mapped close to or within genes including those encoding WNT/β-catenin signaling proteins. Understanding the genetics of osteoporosis will help to identify novel candidates for diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Genetic factors are also important for the development of sarcopenia, which is characterized by a loss of lean body mass, and obesity, which is characterized by high fat mass. Hence, in this review, we discuss the genetic factors, identified by genetic studies, which regulate the body components related to osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity.
Vol 62. No. 4
Meta-analyses have revealed that the relative risk of hip fractures in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher than that in non-diabetic subjects. The risk of fracture in patients with diabetes mellitus increases along with a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) similarly to those in non-diabetic patients. However, the observed risk of fracture is higher than expected one by BMD in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, indicating that precise estimation of bone fragility by BMD values in patients with diabetes is difficult. Bone strength consists of BMD and bone quality, for this reason, poor bone quality is a most suitable and explicable cause for elevated fracture risk in this population. This bone fragility observed in patients with diabetes mellitus is caused by unique pathogenesis in diabetes, suggesting that osteoporosis in diabetic patients may be one of the diabetic complications and that specific diagnostic criteria for this osteoporosis is required. Bone quality indicators closely related to bone fragility are required to be identified to establish a diagnostic method for osteoporosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Yi X. Chan, Matthew W. Knuiman, Joseph Hung, Mark L. Divitini, David J. Handelsman, John P. Beilby, Brendan McQuillan, Bu B. Yeap
Vol 62. No. 9
Clarifying the relationship of sex hormones to preclinical atherosclerosis could illuminate pathways by which androgens are associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Our aim was to determine hormone profiles associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid atheroma, in men with and without known coronary artery disease (CAD). We included 492 community-based men aged 20-70 years (Group A) and 426 men with angiographically proven CAD aged <60 years (Group B). Fasting early morning sera were assayed for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2) using mass spectrometry. CIMT and carotid plaque were assessed ultrasonographically. Mean (±SD) age was Group A: 53.8±12.6 and Group B: 49.6±5.1 years. Higher T was associated with reduced CIMT (-0.011 mm per 1-SD increase, p=0.042) and lower prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD increase, 0.68, p=0.012) in Group A, but not B. E2 was associated with increased CIMT in Group A (0.013 mm, p=0.011) but not B. Higher DHT and E2 were associated with reduced carotid plaque in Group B (DHT: OR=0.77, p=0.024; E2: OR=0.75, p=0.008), but not A. In community-dwelling men, higher T is associated with favourable CIMT and lower prevalence of carotid plaque, while higher E2 is associated with worse CIMT. In men with CAD, higher DHT or E2 are associated with less carotid plaque. T, DHT and E2 are differentially associated with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in a cardiovascular phenotype-specific manner. Interventional studies are needed to examine effects of exogenous T and its metabolites DHT and E2, on atherogenesis.
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